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Recently arrived items in past 30 days (331) answer(s).
ID:   163464

Syrian conflict and public opinion among Syrians in Lebanon / Corstange, Daniel   Journal Article
Corstange, Daniel Journal Article
Summary/Abstract Whom do ordinary Syrians support in their civil war? After decades of repression, the Syrian uprising unleashed an outpouring of political expression. Yet the study of Syrian public opinion is in its infancy. This article presents survey evidence from a large, diverse sample of Syrian refugees in neighbouring Lebanon, one of the first of its kind, and examines their support for the different factions fighting in the civil war. In so doing, it demonstrates that many conventional narratives of the conflict are oversimplifications of a more complex reality. The survey shows that the majority of Syrian refugees support one faction or another of the opposition, but a large minority sympathizes with the government. In line with existing accounts of the war, the government draws its popular support base from wealthier and less religious Syrians, as well as minorities. Nonetheless, large numbers of Sunni Arabs also side with the government, belying sectarian narratives of the war. The survey also finds that supporters of the opposition Islamists and non-Islamists are similar in many regards, including religiosity. The main distinction is that the non-Islamist support base is far more politically attentive than are Islamist sympathizers, in contrast to existing narratives of the war.
Key Words Syria  Lebanon  Sunni Arabs  Syrian Conflict 
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ID:   163463

Ethnocultural nationalism and Turkey’s non-Muslim minorities during the early republican period / Eligür, Banu   Journal Article
Eligür, Banu Journal Article
Summary/Abstract his article analyses the Turkish nationalist elite’s economic and demographic Turkification policies toward the non-Muslim minorities in the 1920s and 1930s, and argues that the nationalist elite pursued ethnocultural nationalism toward the country’s non-Muslim citizens, while applying civic-territorial nationalism toward Muslim Turks. The article maintains that the nationalist elite, like the Young Turk regime, aimed at forming a national Turkish Muslim businessmen class at the expense of the non-Muslim minorities by pursuing economic and demographic Turkification policies.
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ID:   163462

Romioi–Armenian friendship in the Ottoman Empire during the Armistice period (1918–1923) / Şekeryan, Ari   Journal Article
Şekeryan, Ari Journal Article
Summary/Abstract he Romioi–Armenian friendship, which emerged after the signing of the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918, portrays a unique chapter in the history of Romioi–Armenian relations. During this distinct period, the two communities forged strong bonds over their mutual opposition against the Ottoman state. They drafted common political plans and strategies, established friendship organizations in Istanbul, organized gatherings, and the Armenian and the Ecumenical Patriarchates even entered into a discussion to unite the two churches. Thus, the relationship between the Armenian and the Romioi communities during the Armistice period holds significance in the broader context of the history of Greek–Armenian relations. This article explores the extent of the Romioi–Armenian friendship during the Armistice period through an extensive collection of primary sources including Armenian and Ottoman Turkish newspapers in order to demonstrate how the community leaders worked to improve relations between the Armenian and Romioi communities.
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ID:   163461

Was there a rule of law in the late Ottoman Empire? / Rubin, Avi   Journal Article
Rubin, Avi Journal Article
Summary/Abstract The rule of law is a widely used term in scholarship on Ottoman legal reforms. Nevertheless, the actual meaning of this notion is rarely clarified in the writing on the late Ottoman Empire although theorists of law have discussed the ambiguity of this term. This article aims at examining the value of the rule of law as an analytical category when discussing socio-legal change in the late Ottoman Empire. The article demonstrates that the rule of law can be a meaningful category for historical analysis when conceived through a ‘cultural perspective’ to the law.
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ID:   163460

Islam–science relation from the perspective of post-revolutionary Iranian religious intellectuals / Akbar, Ali   Journal Article
Akbar, Ali Journal Article
Summary/Abstract Throughout Islamic history, various arguments have been raised by Muslim scholars concerning how the Quran and scientific knowledge are related to one another. This paper seeks to examine how contemporary Iranian religious intellectuals (rowshanfekrān-e-dīnī) have dealt with the question of the compatibility or incompatibility between Islam and science. In particular, the paper focuses on the writings of two of the most significant reformers of the post-revolutionary era, namely Abdolkarim Soroush and Muhammad Mujtahed Shabestari, concerning the relation between science and religion. The paper also examines the extent to which the ideas of these two thinkers about the relation between Islam and science reflect those of pre-modern and modern Muslim scholars. To do so, I first examine various pre-modern and modern discourses within the Islamic tradition about Islam–science relation as well as the scientific exegesis of the Quran, and then investigate the extent to which Soroush’s and Shabestari’s perspectives are related to such discourses. The central argument of the paper is that the theories proposed by Soroush and Shabestari significantly differ from the views of those modern and pre-modern Muslim scholars who attempt to argue in favour of the dichotomous view that Islam is either compatible or incompatible with scientific knowledge.
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ID:   163459

Feeling so Hood. Rap, lifestyles and the neighbourhood imaginary in Tunisia / Barone, Stefano   Journal Article
Barone, Stefano Journal Article
Summary/Abstract The article examines the role of rap in reimagining the social structure in Tunisia after its 2010/2011 revolution. Before the revolution, the Ben Ali regime imposed a narrative of Tunisian society as mainly middle class; beneath this narrative, the Tunisian folklore hosted multiple markers of social distinction that classified people through their perceived lifestyles: residence, language habits, consumption patterns, religious attitudes. Disadvantaged neighbourhoods were obliterated by the official narrative and condemned to social spite by the unofficial ones. After the revolution, the success of rap came to ‘represent’ those quarters and the youth that inhabited them: rappers sang the hoods by criticizing their hard conditions and, at the same time, glorifying the hoods themselves. The vagueness of the social narratives in the country allowed rap musicians to manipulate both the image of the poor neighbourhoods and the idioms of social difference circulating in Tunisia: through this manipulation, they provided a new dignity to the most marginalized sectors of Tunisian society. At the same time, by representing the hoods, rappers could claim social capital and credibility as the ‘true’ narrators of the new Tunisia. But the reimagination of social narratives was not enough to improve the life conditions of dispossessed youth.
Key Words Neighbourhood  Tunisia  Imaginary 
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ID:   163458

Tunisia’s youth: awakened identity and challenges post-Arab Spring / Gabsi, Zouhir   Journal Article
Gabsi, Zouhir Journal Article
Summary/Abstract This paper examines Tunisian youths’ sense of identity and how it is influenced by the economic malaise that the country has experienced since the revolution; this is despite the relative success of the Arab Spring at inciting the country’s political transition to democracy. Although young people appreciate new-found freedoms of expression and association in post-Arab Spring Tunisia, the economy, acquiescent to the neoliberal model and weighed down with corruption and political marginalization, has deprived many of a dignified existence. The research reported in this paper surveys over 100 youth chosen from northern, coastal, central and southern parts of Tunisia. It examines how Tunisian youth view the Arab Spring in the context of unstable socio-economic and political environments. To most surveyed youths, the Arab Spring is a failure in socio-economic terms, but it is also an occasion to reassert their Tunisian identity.
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ID:   163457

Beyond borders: the Egyptian 1947 epidemic as a regional and international crisis / Kozma, Liat; Samuels, Diane   Journal Article
Kozma, Liat Journal Article
Summary/Abstract This article examines the post-Second World War regionalization and internationalization of public health by focusing on the 1947 cholera epidemic in Egypt. We argue, first, that for the Egyptian medical profession, the epidemic served as an opportunity for both anti-colonial critique and soul-searching and self-criticism: it attested to the poor medical condition of the Egyptian countryside and the work required to ameliorate it. Second, we place the Egyptian epidemic in its regional context. We show how travel restrictions affected the mobility of people and merchandise between Egypt and its neighbours, as newly formed borders were solidified, crossed or transgressed. At the same time, the epidemic served as an opportunity for Arab solidarity. Finally, the since epidemic erupted during the short term of the WHO’s Interim Commission, Egypt served as the WHO’s first testing ground, helping to prove its capability to mobilize medical assistance, disseminate medical alerts and negotiate the abolition of quarantine restrictions. The epidemic, moreover, erupted against the background of renegotiation of international sanitary conventions, which historically placed cholera and the Muslim pilgrimage to the Hejaz at their centre. The source of the epidemic in a British military base and Egypt’s ability to contain the epidemic resonated with on-going debates over international travel restriction, international health policies and local sovereignty. The 1947 cholera epidemic was thus, a defining moment in the emerging relationship between international organizations and the decolonizing world.
Key Words Egypt  International Crisis  Beyond Borders 
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ID:   163456

Origins of sectarianism in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent / Hazran, Yusri   Journal Article
Hazran, Yusri Journal Article
Summary/Abstract This paper differs from previous studies in arguing that sectarianism has overwhelmingly been created consensually by/or as a result of the elites’ behavioral patterns. Religious or communal pluralism does not categorically lead to political sectarianism; The development of pluralism into political sectarianism can thus be adduced as dependent upon other factors—first and foremost the behavioural patterns of the elite. While the imperial legacy, theological controversies, and socio-economic gaps feed political sectarianism, in and of themselves they are insufficient to cause it. A survey of the history of Egypt and the other countries in the Fertile Crescent reveals that the development of political sectarianism or sectarian violence has been organically linked to elites' political behaviors and interests. sectarianism takes the form of the instrumental exploitation of a religious or communal identity or framework in order to enable political organization, the gaining of political legitimacy, the promotion of political change, or the preservation of the control held by interest groups. While in the eyes of many critics, sectarianism forms a striking example of the elites' intrinsic weakness, sectarianism is first and foremost a product of the elites’ quest for power.
Key Words Egypt  Socio-Economic  Sectarianism 
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ID:   163455

Al-Qadā’ wa-l-Qadr: motivational representations of divine decree and predestination in salafi-jihadi literature / Maher,Shiraz; Bissoondath, Alexandra   Journal Article
Maher,Shiraz Journal Article
Summary/Abstract This paper explores how the normative Islamic concepts of divine decree and predestination are used for motivational purposes in salafi-jihadi literature. These concepts are known as al-qaḍā’ wa-l-qadr within Islamic jurisprudence and assert that certain characteristics in an individual’s life—such as their lifespan, wealth and progeny—have already been preordained by God. Salafi-Jihadi groups, not least al-Qaeda and Islamic State, frame these concepts in unique and important ways to motivate their fighters on the battlefield, liberating them from fear of personal consequences. In particular, we examine the use of this concept not just to motivate fighters at a personal level, but also its role in maintaining morale during times of hardship, its ability to explain away failures and defeats, and its ability to project both momentum and success even when the facts suggest otherwise.
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ID:   163454

Controversy over the concept ‘freedom’ during the Iranian constitutional revolution (1906– 09) / Feldmann, Andreas E; Yazdani , Sohrab ; Sheiban, Hossein   Journal Article
Feldmann, Andreas E Journal Article
Summary/Abstract The Iranian constitutional revolution of 1906–09 paved the way for the establishment of new administrative institutions, adopting modern ideas and the hegemony of new political discourse over the archaic political reasoning. One of the most important aspects of the new discourse was the definition and internalization of modern concepts. This paper holds the view that the concept ‘freedom’ brought about a complicated problem for the socio-political sphere in the course of the Iranian revolution and, as such, deserves a thorough examination. Previous studies on the subject have usually neglected this aspect. Yet, this was exactly the main domain of the clash between traditionalism and modernity during the revolutionary years and brought about far-reaching results for Iranian society. This article attempts to contribute to this field by examining a number of Iranian journals of the period in order to evaluate their understanding of the concept ‘freedom’ and show the discrepancy between the constitutionalist and non-constitutionalist discourses.
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ID:   163453

Civilian casualities and public support for military action: experimental evidence / Johns, Robert; Davies, Graeme A M   Journal Article
Davies, Graeme A M Journal Article
Summary/Abstract In contrast to the expansive literature on military casualties and support for war, we know very little about public reactions to foreign civilian casualties. This article, based on representative sample surveys in the United States and Britain, reports four survey experiments weaving information about civilian casualties into vignettes about Western military action. These produce consistent evidence of civilian casualty aversion: where death tolls were higher, support for force was invariably and significantly lower. Casualty effects were moderate in size but robust across our two cases and across different scenarios. They were also strikingly resistant to moderation by other factors manipulated in the experiments, such as the framing of casualties or their religious affiliation. The importance of numbers over even strongly humanizing frames points toward a utilitarian rather than a social psychological model of casualty aversion. Either way, civilian casualties deserve a more prominent place in the literature on public support for war.
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ID:   163452

Unforeseen consequences of extended deterrence: moral hazard in a Nuclear client state / Narang, Neil; Mehta, Rupal N   Journal Article
Mehta, Rupal N Journal Article
Summary/Abstract Do “nuclear umbrellas” create a moral hazard that can increase the risk of war? In this article, we investigate whether situations of extended deterrence in which a nuclear patron makes a defensive commitment to a nonnuclear client state can inadvertently increase the likelihood that a client will initiate a crisis with another state. Using data on the crisis behavior of states from 1950 to 2000, we estimate the impact of a nuclear umbrella on various crisis outcomes, including the initiation and escalation of militarized conflict. Interestingly, we find no evidence that such commitments increase the risk of war or even two-sided violence at lower levels. However, consistent with both the moral hazard logic and bargaining theories of war, we show that this appears to be because potential target states offer increased policy concessions to client states to avoid costly fighting. Thus, the link between nuclear umbrellas and moral hazard appears to be real, but it is reflected in the division of benefits rather than a greater likelihood of war. The results have important policy implications as the US contemplates extending its nuclear umbrella.
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ID:   163451

Ousting of General Secretary Hu Yaobang: the roles played by Peng Zhen and Other Party / Chung, Yen-Lin   Journal Article
Chung, Yen-lin Journal Article
Summary/Abstract With the support of Party elders led by Deng Xiaoping, Hu Yaobang assumed the top position in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). is article examines the roles played by the powerful “revolutionary elders” in Hu’s dismissal from the post of CCP General Secretary in early 1987. Special attention is paid to the role of Peng Zhen. is detailed study furthers our understanding of the nature and operations of Chinese elite politics in the Deng era, and of the complex generational relations between the old revolutionaries and the successor generation of leaders. Deng Xiaoping (鄧小平), Chen Yun (陳雲), Peng Zhen (彭真), and others among the post-Mao Party elders had been inuential statesmen in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) during the pre–Cultural Revolution
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ID:   163450

Confronting China in an Asymmetric Relationship: the case of peace efficacy in Taiwan / Shih, Chih-yu   Journal Article
Shih, Chih-Yu Journal Article
Summary/Abstract is study seeks to explain how a weaker party could decide on its own to confront a stronger party. e weaker party relies on relational turn in international relations to provide an alternative to the realist view. On the basis of relational turn, which stresses the importance of discovering the processual mechanisms of behavior instead of the structure or corelationship among variables, this study oers an empirically based speculation of the plausible psychological mechanisms that enable a weaker party in Taiwan to resort to confrontation against a stronger party in China. ese psychological mechanisms are arguably necessary processes that lead to confrontational policy. This study argues that a small party is epistemologically equal to its stronger counterpart in relational coupling. is assumption is based on prior understandings that constitute the identities of both parties. The former exerts agency for confrontation when acting upon the senses of ecacy, determination, and/or legitimacy that are embedded in relational coupling. North Korean Leader Kim Jung Un executed his uncle Jang Song-thaek for treason on 13 December 2013. e execution was conducted in the most theatrical fashion and was seemingly designed for the entire world to see. Jang was a top-ranking pro-China veteran who believed in the Chinese style of reform. A year before, Jang was still collaborating with
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ID:   163449

Clientelistic state corporatism: the united front model of “pairing-up” in the Xi Jinping era / Liao, Xingmiu; Tsai, Wen-Hsuan   Journal Article
Tsai, Wen-Hsuan Journal Article
Summary/Abstract United front work has played an important role in the history of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Since 2012, Xi Jinping has strengthened the united front system’s ecacy and further proposed formation of a “great united front.” He holds that united front work’s essence is “making friends,” in which regard the CCP under Xi has introduced a new practice called “pairing-up.” It stipulates that local governments at all levels must facilitate establishment of “friendly” relations between members of Party committees and specific persons in charge of so-called democratic parties to further implementation of united front work. This new form of united front embodies “clientelistic state corporatism.” We use the case of L City to analyze the united front model of pairing-up, its eects and limitations, and the CCP’s social control strategy
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ID:   163448

Consent to contend: the power of the masses in China’s local elite bargain / Ma, Xiao   Journal Article
Ma, Xiao Journal Article
Summary/Abstract is study explores how local ocials tolerate and use mass mobilization to extract policy concessions from above. Local ocials strategically tolerate mass mobilization when the demands of the masses are congruent with elements of their own agenda that they are otherwise unable to pursue. Protestors in the streets turn out to be a powerful bargaining chip for local ocials: they illustrate ex ante that higher level leaders risk causing social instability if they reject the masses’ demands. e article lays out the institutional environment that gives rise to such a strategy, presents a detailed case study focusing on the
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ID:   163447

Dispute settlement on the Belt and Road: ideas on system, spirit and style / Yee, Sienho   Journal Article
Yee, Sienho Journal Article
Summary/Abstract This comment offers some brief observations on ideas that may promote the settlement of disputes that may arise from the Belt and Road Initiative, such as a possible standing investment court, a unified appellate mechanism or a legal aid mechanism as system components, a “lawyer for the situation” spirit for lawyering, an emphasis on a friendly style of dispute settlement, and a style of directly providing for rules of interpretation as part of the applicable law
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ID:   163446

International environmental law in an era of globalized waste / Barsalou, Olivier; Picard, Michael Hennessy   Journal Article
Barsalou, Olivier Journal Article
Summary/Abstract In an era of globalized waste, international environmental law’s main function is not simply to protect and preserve nature and the environment. Rather, it should be conceived of as a set of norms, institutions, and practices designed to manage waste on a global scale.
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ID:   163445

Domestic Institutional constraints, Veto players, and sanction effectiveness / Jeong, Jin Mun; Peksen, Dursun   Journal Article
Peksen, Dursun Journal Article
Summary/Abstract What effect do the domestic institutional constraints in target states have on sanction outcomes? Other than the narrow focus on political regime type, little is known about how the institutional makeup of target states might affect leaders’ ability to adjust their policies to defy sanctions. We assert that the size of veto players in targets is a crucial yet overlooked institutional factor in explaining sanction effectiveness. We contend that political leaders subject to the approval of multiple veto players are more likely to concede as they are less likely to develop polices to counter the sanctions. We assess the empirical merits of our theoretical claims by combining data on sanctions from the Threat and Imposition of Economic Sanctions data set with the veto points data from the Political Constraints data set. Results from the data analysis for the 1946 to 2005 period indicate that the size of veto players is a significant predictor of sanction success even when we control for political regime type and other major political and economic covariates of sanction effectiveness.
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